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Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a Before the civil war @chakabars A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars
Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a
 Before the civil war
 @chakabars
A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars

A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have be...

Children, Friday, and Memes: Tweet NBC News @NBC News NBC NEWS BREAKING: The U.S. has launched a missile strike on a Syrian military airfield where the gas attack is believed to have originated 4/6/17, 6:17 PM 1,685 RETWEETS 657 LIKES This is not a JOKE. The official FOXNEWS report is below: DEVELOPING – The United States launched dozens of cruise missiles at a Syrian airfield early Friday in response to a chemical weapons attack that killed dozens of civilians, the first direct assault on the Damascus government since the beginning of that country's bloody civil war in 2011. At least 50 U.S. Tomahawk missiles targeted an airbase at Shayrat, located outside Homs. It is believed that the base was used as the staging point for Tuesday's chemical weapons attack on rebel-held territory, which killed as many as 72 civilians, including women and children. The use of Tomahawk missiles meant that the strikes did not target air defense systems manned by Russian troops. The Assad regime is strongly backed by Russia and Iran. U.S. defense officials tell Fox that two warships based in the eastern Mediterranean, the USS Porter and the USS Ross, have been training for the past two days to execute this mission. “Our forward deployed ships give us the capability to quickly respond to threats," said a Navy official. "These strikes in Syria are a perfect example - this is why we're there." The original plans called for two targets, the airbase and a chemical weapons storage facility. However, Pentagon planners decided late Thursday to target just the airbase. Sens. John McCain, R-Ariz., and Lindsay Graham, R-S.C., expressed support for the strike, saying in a joint statement that "the United States will no longer stand idly by as Assad, aided and abetted by Putin’s Russia, slaughters innocent Syrians with chemical weapons and barrel bombs."
Children, Friday, and Memes: Tweet
 NBC News
 @NBC News
 NBC NEWS
 BREAKING: The U.S. has launched a
 missile strike on a Syrian military airfield
 where the gas attack is believed to have
 originated
 4/6/17, 6:17 PM
 1,685
 RETWEETS
 657
 LIKES
This is not a JOKE. The official FOXNEWS report is below: DEVELOPING – The United States launched dozens of cruise missiles at a Syrian airfield early Friday in response to a chemical weapons attack that killed dozens of civilians, the first direct assault on the Damascus government since the beginning of that country's bloody civil war in 2011. At least 50 U.S. Tomahawk missiles targeted an airbase at Shayrat, located outside Homs. It is believed that the base was used as the staging point for Tuesday's chemical weapons attack on rebel-held territory, which killed as many as 72 civilians, including women and children. The use of Tomahawk missiles meant that the strikes did not target air defense systems manned by Russian troops. The Assad regime is strongly backed by Russia and Iran. U.S. defense officials tell Fox that two warships based in the eastern Mediterranean, the USS Porter and the USS Ross, have been training for the past two days to execute this mission. “Our forward deployed ships give us the capability to quickly respond to threats," said a Navy official. "These strikes in Syria are a perfect example - this is why we're there." The original plans called for two targets, the airbase and a chemical weapons storage facility. However, Pentagon planners decided late Thursday to target just the airbase. Sens. John McCain, R-Ariz., and Lindsay Graham, R-S.C., expressed support for the strike, saying in a joint statement that "the United States will no longer stand idly by as Assad, aided and abetted by Putin’s Russia, slaughters innocent Syrians with chemical weapons and barrel bombs."

This is not a JOKE. The official FOXNEWS report is below: DEVELOPING – The United States launched dozens of cruise missiles at a Syrian airf...

Abc, Assassination, and Beyonce: 90% OF THE COUNTRY KNOWS BEYONCE IS PREGNANT WITH TWINS 10% KNOW THAT A 1999 CIVILSUITDETERMINEDTHE FBI &MEMPHIS POLICE HELPED ORCHESTRATE THEMURDER OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. 💭 It’s Been 49 Years, and Most Don’t Know the FBI & Police Admitted Their Role in the Assassination of Dr. King... REPORT: (link to article in our bio) It’s been 49 years since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the FBI and Memphis Police Department have sparingly released information implicating themselves or members of their agencies in facilitating and directly causing the untimely death of Dr. King. . Although the Justice Department officially claims James Earl Ray assassinated MLK, a civil suit later determined that a Memphis cop was involved in a conspiracy to murder the civil rights leader. . In 1999, civil trial King v. Jowers determined former Memphis PD officer Loyd Jowers had been complicit in a conspiracy to assassinate Dr. King. In December 1993, Jowers appeared on ABC’s Prime Time Live confessing to his participation in Dr. King’s assassination. Jowers admitted he believed MPD Lt. Earl Clark fired the shot that killed Dr. King, not James Earl Ray. Although the U.S. government claims that Jowers fabricated his allegations, they have also admitted responsibility in attempting to ruin Dr. King’s marriage and persuading him to commit suicide... . - Continued - . 💭 Read the FULL Report: (link in bio) http:-thefreethoughtproject.com-fbi-memphis-polices-admitted-involvement-assassination-mlk- 💭 Join Us: @TheFreeThoughtProject 💭 TheFreeThoughtProject MLK MLKJR 💭 LIKE our Facebook page & Visit our website for more News and Information. Link in Bio.... 💭 www.TheFreeThoughtProject.com
Abc, Assassination, and Beyonce: 90% OF THE COUNTRY KNOWS
 BEYONCE IS PREGNANT WITH TWINS
 10% KNOW
 THAT A 1999 CIVILSUITDETERMINEDTHE FBI &MEMPHIS POLICE
 HELPED ORCHESTRATE THEMURDER OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
💭 It’s Been 49 Years, and Most Don’t Know the FBI & Police Admitted Their Role in the Assassination of Dr. King... REPORT: (link to article in our bio) It’s been 49 years since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the FBI and Memphis Police Department have sparingly released information implicating themselves or members of their agencies in facilitating and directly causing the untimely death of Dr. King. . Although the Justice Department officially claims James Earl Ray assassinated MLK, a civil suit later determined that a Memphis cop was involved in a conspiracy to murder the civil rights leader. . In 1999, civil trial King v. Jowers determined former Memphis PD officer Loyd Jowers had been complicit in a conspiracy to assassinate Dr. King. In December 1993, Jowers appeared on ABC’s Prime Time Live confessing to his participation in Dr. King’s assassination. Jowers admitted he believed MPD Lt. Earl Clark fired the shot that killed Dr. King, not James Earl Ray. Although the U.S. government claims that Jowers fabricated his allegations, they have also admitted responsibility in attempting to ruin Dr. King’s marriage and persuading him to commit suicide... . - Continued - . 💭 Read the FULL Report: (link in bio) http:-thefreethoughtproject.com-fbi-memphis-polices-admitted-involvement-assassination-mlk- 💭 Join Us: @TheFreeThoughtProject 💭 TheFreeThoughtProject MLK MLKJR 💭 LIKE our Facebook page & Visit our website for more News and Information. Link in Bio.... 💭 www.TheFreeThoughtProject.com

💭 It’s Been 49 Years, and Most Don’t Know the FBI & Police Admitted Their Role in the Assassination of Dr. King... REPORT: (link to article ...