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Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a Before the civil war @chakabars A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars
Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a
 Before the civil war
 @chakabars
A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars

A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have be...

Abc, Assassination, and Beyonce: 90% OF THE COUNTRY KNOWS BEYONCE IS PREGNANT WITH TWINS 10% KNOW THAT A 1999 CIVILSUITDETERMINEDTHE FBI &MEMPHIS POLICE HELPED ORCHESTRATE THEMURDER OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. 💭 It’s Been 49 Years, and Most Don’t Know the FBI & Police Admitted Their Role in the Assassination of Dr. King... REPORT: (link to article in our bio) It’s been 49 years since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the FBI and Memphis Police Department have sparingly released information implicating themselves or members of their agencies in facilitating and directly causing the untimely death of Dr. King. . Although the Justice Department officially claims James Earl Ray assassinated MLK, a civil suit later determined that a Memphis cop was involved in a conspiracy to murder the civil rights leader. . In 1999, civil trial King v. Jowers determined former Memphis PD officer Loyd Jowers had been complicit in a conspiracy to assassinate Dr. King. In December 1993, Jowers appeared on ABC’s Prime Time Live confessing to his participation in Dr. King’s assassination. Jowers admitted he believed MPD Lt. Earl Clark fired the shot that killed Dr. King, not James Earl Ray. Although the U.S. government claims that Jowers fabricated his allegations, they have also admitted responsibility in attempting to ruin Dr. King’s marriage and persuading him to commit suicide... . - Continued - . 💭 Read the FULL Report: (link in bio) http:-thefreethoughtproject.com-fbi-memphis-polices-admitted-involvement-assassination-mlk- 💭 Join Us: @TheFreeThoughtProject 💭 TheFreeThoughtProject MLK MLKJR 💭 LIKE our Facebook page & Visit our website for more News and Information. Link in Bio.... 💭 www.TheFreeThoughtProject.com
Abc, Assassination, and Beyonce: 90% OF THE COUNTRY KNOWS
 BEYONCE IS PREGNANT WITH TWINS
 10% KNOW
 THAT A 1999 CIVILSUITDETERMINEDTHE FBI &MEMPHIS POLICE
 HELPED ORCHESTRATE THEMURDER OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
💭 It’s Been 49 Years, and Most Don’t Know the FBI & Police Admitted Their Role in the Assassination of Dr. King... REPORT: (link to article in our bio) It’s been 49 years since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the FBI and Memphis Police Department have sparingly released information implicating themselves or members of their agencies in facilitating and directly causing the untimely death of Dr. King. . Although the Justice Department officially claims James Earl Ray assassinated MLK, a civil suit later determined that a Memphis cop was involved in a conspiracy to murder the civil rights leader. . In 1999, civil trial King v. Jowers determined former Memphis PD officer Loyd Jowers had been complicit in a conspiracy to assassinate Dr. King. In December 1993, Jowers appeared on ABC’s Prime Time Live confessing to his participation in Dr. King’s assassination. Jowers admitted he believed MPD Lt. Earl Clark fired the shot that killed Dr. King, not James Earl Ray. Although the U.S. government claims that Jowers fabricated his allegations, they have also admitted responsibility in attempting to ruin Dr. King’s marriage and persuading him to commit suicide... . - Continued - . 💭 Read the FULL Report: (link in bio) http:-thefreethoughtproject.com-fbi-memphis-polices-admitted-involvement-assassination-mlk- 💭 Join Us: @TheFreeThoughtProject 💭 TheFreeThoughtProject MLK MLKJR 💭 LIKE our Facebook page & Visit our website for more News and Information. Link in Bio.... 💭 www.TheFreeThoughtProject.com

💭 It’s Been 49 Years, and Most Don’t Know the FBI & Police Admitted Their Role in the Assassination of Dr. King... REPORT: (link to article ...

Beautiful, Blessed, and Children: Because you need a cute Somali baby on your timeline, have a blessed day a @chaka ban Because when you tell a story you should tell the full story. There is suffering in Somalia right now, many people don't have access to food or water. We are trying to change that, we don't make a business out of helping the people, but we do it out of humanity. The same humanity I extend to all people suffering anywhere on this earth. Many people told me Somalia is too dangerous, the people are crazy, it wouldn't help to come here... Etc But I am no different to any of these people, so I won't hide behind my passport or the privileges, that I never asked for anyway. We need to treat all humans as equal, no matter where they are from or which belief system they follow. So many people think of Somali people and think of pirates. They don't speak of the colonisation by the British, the Italians and the French, the massacres that the Ethiopians lead against the Somali people, or how the Russians and the Cubans & Ethiopians went to war with the Somalia people in 1964. They never speak about North Americas involvement in keeping Somalia at war. They don't speak of the pipeline that Kenya and Ethiopia want to run through Somalia. Or how Libya and Yemen fought against the Somali people. Or how nuclear waste was dumped off the coast of Somalia by the Mafia, poisoning Somali children and fish. Or how many of the Gulf states are complicit in arming & funding the terrorists in Somalia. Then there was conflict and civil war... Or how the casualties of all of this are little babies like this one. They rarely speak of the beauty of the people, how hospitable they are, how friendly and welcoming they are. I got so many hugs and smiles. I didn't meet one person who was scary or aggressive. Not saying they don't exist, but please, tell the full story. The 🇸🇴 people deserve to be properly represented, they are so beautiful and need you to see them as humans, just like you see me... chakabars
Beautiful, Blessed, and Children: Because you need a cute Somali baby
 on your timeline, have a blessed day a
 @chaka ban
Because when you tell a story you should tell the full story. There is suffering in Somalia right now, many people don't have access to food or water. We are trying to change that, we don't make a business out of helping the people, but we do it out of humanity. The same humanity I extend to all people suffering anywhere on this earth. Many people told me Somalia is too dangerous, the people are crazy, it wouldn't help to come here... Etc But I am no different to any of these people, so I won't hide behind my passport or the privileges, that I never asked for anyway. We need to treat all humans as equal, no matter where they are from or which belief system they follow. So many people think of Somali people and think of pirates. They don't speak of the colonisation by the British, the Italians and the French, the massacres that the Ethiopians lead against the Somali people, or how the Russians and the Cubans & Ethiopians went to war with the Somalia people in 1964. They never speak about North Americas involvement in keeping Somalia at war. They don't speak of the pipeline that Kenya and Ethiopia want to run through Somalia. Or how Libya and Yemen fought against the Somali people. Or how nuclear waste was dumped off the coast of Somalia by the Mafia, poisoning Somali children and fish. Or how many of the Gulf states are complicit in arming & funding the terrorists in Somalia. Then there was conflict and civil war... Or how the casualties of all of this are little babies like this one. They rarely speak of the beauty of the people, how hospitable they are, how friendly and welcoming they are. I got so many hugs and smiles. I didn't meet one person who was scary or aggressive. Not saying they don't exist, but please, tell the full story. The 🇸🇴 people deserve to be properly represented, they are so beautiful and need you to see them as humans, just like you see me... chakabars

Because when you tell a story you should tell the full story. There is suffering in Somalia right now, many people don't have access to food...

Memes, 🤖, and Usa: HOW TO END TERRORISM 1) BUY A GUN 2) LEARN HOW TO USE IT CARRYIT EVERYWHERE ERANSR CO Peacemaker National Training Center, a veteran-owned gun range, which is a world-class firearms training and shooting facility in West Virginia, is being illegally sued by residents of Virginia claiming that the gun range was violating noise ordinances. The problem is the ordinance specifically exempts gun ranges from such complaints. In my opinion this is absolutely outrageous. The suit is without merit, and baseless in WV law. The plaintiffs, Ben and Diane Goldstein, has asked the courts to force Peacemaker to hand over every member's personal information. The prosecuting attorney said the information would be used to contact customers and glean information about what time customers shot, how many rounds, what type of weaponry was used and determine what range they had been at. But this court’s demand is obviously an overreach of power. “I consider this a flagrant violation of my right to privacy with respect to personal information,” Douglas Dolan, a customer of Peacemakers said. “I consider the order to be excessive in the extreme in a civil case regarding alleged excessive noise.” The list of personal information they've requested is astonishing and could go down as detailed as social security numbers. That's pretty bad, right? No judge in his right mind would allow that information out, no? Except this judge has. He's ordered Peacemaker to hand over the personal information of everyone who's trained there. Every bit of info they have on every customer is covered in this discovery order. veteranscomefirst veterans_us Veterans Usveterans veteransUSA SupportVeterans Politics USA America Patriots Gratitude HonorVets thankvets supportourtroops semperfi USMC USCG USAF Navy Army military godblessourmilitary soldier holdthegovernmentaccountable RememberEveryoneDeployed Usflag StarsandStripes
Memes, 🤖, and Usa: HOW TO END
 TERRORISM
 1) BUY A GUN
 2) LEARN HOW TO USE IT
 CARRYIT EVERYWHERE
 ERANSR
 CO
Peacemaker National Training Center, a veteran-owned gun range, which is a world-class firearms training and shooting facility in West Virginia, is being illegally sued by residents of Virginia claiming that the gun range was violating noise ordinances. The problem is the ordinance specifically exempts gun ranges from such complaints. In my opinion this is absolutely outrageous. The suit is without merit, and baseless in WV law. The plaintiffs, Ben and Diane Goldstein, has asked the courts to force Peacemaker to hand over every member's personal information. The prosecuting attorney said the information would be used to contact customers and glean information about what time customers shot, how many rounds, what type of weaponry was used and determine what range they had been at. But this court’s demand is obviously an overreach of power. “I consider this a flagrant violation of my right to privacy with respect to personal information,” Douglas Dolan, a customer of Peacemakers said. “I consider the order to be excessive in the extreme in a civil case regarding alleged excessive noise.” The list of personal information they've requested is astonishing and could go down as detailed as social security numbers. That's pretty bad, right? No judge in his right mind would allow that information out, no? Except this judge has. He's ordered Peacemaker to hand over the personal information of everyone who's trained there. Every bit of info they have on every customer is covered in this discovery order. veteranscomefirst veterans_us Veterans Usveterans veteransUSA SupportVeterans Politics USA America Patriots Gratitude HonorVets thankvets supportourtroops semperfi USMC USCG USAF Navy Army military godblessourmilitary soldier holdthegovernmentaccountable RememberEveryoneDeployed Usflag StarsandStripes

Peacemaker National Training Center, a veteran-owned gun range, which is a world-class firearms training and shooting facility in West Virgi...