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Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a Before the civil war @chakabars A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars
Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a
 Before the civil war
 @chakabars
A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars

A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have be...

Being Alone, Bad, and Crying: Whitney Kittrell February 8 at 11.15am.In stagram When became a single mom over 3 years ago I made a promise with myself that I would do anythinglcould, even if it meant going out of my comfort zone, to give my kids a "normal" life and the same experiences as other kids. We have accomplished a lot. Trips alone, teaching my son how to play catch, killing bugs with minimal screaming, countless memories, and a normal life. But when mykindergartener came home with a paper saying that they were having "dads and doughnuts" my heart kinda sank. I finally sat him down and asked if he wanted to ask his grandpa to go. He just smiled and said "no. I want you to go. You're my mom and dad. So this morning Igathered up my best dadoutfit painted on some facial hair, and went to breakfast with my sweet son, I was so embarrassed but I couldn't help but smile when he introduced me to his little friends saying this is my mom... she's my dad too so I brought her!" I've tried my best to let them know they are loved but wonder a lot if I'm actually succeeding at it. Whenlwent to leave he ran after me and hugged me tight around my neck and whispered "mom... I know that you'll always be there and do anything for me. Thank you. love you" kissed my check and ran off. I hope he remembers this day cause Ill never forget it or his sweet words. singlemom adadsanddoughnuts amy forever lovewhatmatters Edit: I've had people askif they can share this. You're more then welcome to. Thank you for all your kind words Idon't know why I'm crying in the this is so cute and sweet. a lot of bad has been going on lately and i hope everyone has a good day and stays safe. -andi
Being Alone, Bad, and Crying: Whitney Kittrell
 February 8 at 11.15am.In stagram
 When became a single mom over 3 years ago I made a
 promise with myself that I would do anythinglcould, even if
 it meant going out of my comfort zone, to give my kids a
 "normal" life and the same experiences as other kids. We
 have accomplished a lot. Trips alone, teaching my son how
 to play catch, killing bugs with minimal screaming, countless
 memories, and a normal life. But when mykindergartener
 came home with a paper saying that they were having "dads
 and doughnuts" my heart kinda sank. I finally sat him down
 and asked if he wanted to ask his grandpa to go. He just
 smiled and said "no. I want you to go. You're my mom and
 dad. So this morning Igathered up my best dadoutfit
 painted on some facial hair, and went to breakfast with my
 sweet son, I was so embarrassed but I couldn't help but
 smile when he introduced me to his little friends saying this
 is my mom... she's my dad too so I brought her!" I've tried
 my best to let them know they are loved but wonder a lot if
 I'm actually succeeding at it. Whenlwent to leave he ran
 after me and hugged me tight around my neck and
 whispered "mom... I know that you'll always be there and do
 anything for me. Thank you. love you" kissed my check and
 ran off. I hope he remembers this day cause Ill never forget
 it or his sweet words. singlemom adadsanddoughnuts
 amy forever lovewhatmatters
 Edit: I've had people askif they can share this. You're more
 then welcome to. Thank you for all your kind words
 Idon't know why I'm crying in the
this is so cute and sweet. a lot of bad has been going on lately and i hope everyone has a good day and stays safe. -andi

this is so cute and sweet. a lot of bad has been going on lately and i hope everyone has a good day and stays safe. -andi