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Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a Before the civil war @chakabars A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars
Beautiful, Memes, and Politics: Beautiful Muqdisho, Somalia, 197Os a
 Before the civil war
 @chakabars
A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have been constantly changing. It has mutated from a civil war in the 1980s, through state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s, to a globalised ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. In this time the international environment has also changed, from the end of the Cold War to the ‘global war on terror’, which impacts directly on the crisis and international responses to it. This poses a problem for Somalis and international actors working to build peace. Initiatives that may have appeared to offer a solution in earlier years may no longer be applicable and there is a risk of fighting yesterday’s war or building yesterday’s peace. This article traces the evolution of the Somali conflict and some of the continuities that run through it. From Cold War to civil war 1988-91 The collapse of the Somali state was the consequence of a combination of internal and external factors. Externally there were the legacies of European colonialism that divided the Somali people into five states, the impact of Cold War politics in shoring up a predatory state, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbouring states, most damagingly the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, there were contradictions between a centralised state authority, and a fractious kinship system and the Somali pastoral culture in which power is diffused. Next came the Somali National Movement (SNM) formed in 1982 that drew its support from the Isaaq clan. The SNM insurgency escalated into a full-scale civil war in 1988 when it attacked government garrisons in Burco and Hargeisa. The government responded with a ferocious assault on the Isaaq clan, killing some 50,000 people and forcing 650,000 to flee to Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somalia’s collapse was hastened by the ending of the Cold War. As Somalia’s strategic importance to the West declined, the foreign aid that had sustained the state was withdrawn. More below 👇🏿😢❤️🇸🇴 Chakabars

A brief history Over the past two decades the nature of the Somali crisis and the international context within which it is occurring have be...

Memes, California, and National Geographic: Aced Nisso? vontade de viajar pode ser resultado de heranca genética O/ACREDITANISS00FICIAL OACREDITANIsso @AcreditaNisso? Se você tem uma constante necessidade de buscar aventuras e não há nada que o faça desistir dos planos de conhecer os 4 cantos do mundo, talvez essa vontade esteja relacionada a um fator genético. Uma pesquisa realizada por cientistas da Universidade da Califórnia em Irvine revelou que isso pode ser rastreado a um gene associado com os níveis de dopamina no cérebro, que é responsável pela sensação de prazer. O estudo “Migração da População e a Variação das Frequências dos Alelos do Receptor de Dopamina D4 (DRD4) ao Redor do Mundo” começou com uma pesquisa por elos entre o receptor de dopamina D4 e o distúrbio de déficit de atenção. Mas no processo da pesquisa, foi descoberto que alelos do gene DRD4 estão presentes em pessoas com personalidades que buscam novidades, emoção, que são hiperativas e gostam de correr riscos. Isso foi proporcionado pela análise dos padrões de migração e a distribuição de genes em seres humanos pré-históricos. Esse gene foi apelidado de ‘gene de wanderlust’ (palavra que significa um grande desejo de viajar e conhecer lugares novos), já que portadores dessa informação genética quase sempre tinha um largo histórico de viagens. Temos muito a agradecer aos ‘wanderlusters’, os viajantes natos. Foram eles que levaram as civilizações humanas para outros lugares além da Mesopotâmia. Em outra pesquisa, o jornalista David Dobbs, da revista National Geographic, investigou por que humanos viajam e as evidências apontaram novamente ao gene DRD4; há vários estudos que relacionam o gene com uma grande vontade de explorar lugares, ideias, comidas, relacionamentos, buscando sempre movimento, mudança e aventura. No entanto, o gene não é tão comum assim; ele é encontrado em apenas cerca de 20% da população. Será que esse é o seu caso? Fonte: weplann . SIGAM-ME OS BONS ➡️ @Nandinhatw (ADM) 😘❤️
Memes, California, and National Geographic: Aced Nisso?
 vontade
 de viajar pode ser
 resultado de
 heranca genética
 O/ACREDITANISS00FICIAL
 OACREDITANIsso
@AcreditaNisso? Se você tem uma constante necessidade de buscar aventuras e não há nada que o faça desistir dos planos de conhecer os 4 cantos do mundo, talvez essa vontade esteja relacionada a um fator genético. Uma pesquisa realizada por cientistas da Universidade da Califórnia em Irvine revelou que isso pode ser rastreado a um gene associado com os níveis de dopamina no cérebro, que é responsável pela sensação de prazer. O estudo “Migração da População e a Variação das Frequências dos Alelos do Receptor de Dopamina D4 (DRD4) ao Redor do Mundo” começou com uma pesquisa por elos entre o receptor de dopamina D4 e o distúrbio de déficit de atenção. Mas no processo da pesquisa, foi descoberto que alelos do gene DRD4 estão presentes em pessoas com personalidades que buscam novidades, emoção, que são hiperativas e gostam de correr riscos. Isso foi proporcionado pela análise dos padrões de migração e a distribuição de genes em seres humanos pré-históricos. Esse gene foi apelidado de ‘gene de wanderlust’ (palavra que significa um grande desejo de viajar e conhecer lugares novos), já que portadores dessa informação genética quase sempre tinha um largo histórico de viagens. Temos muito a agradecer aos ‘wanderlusters’, os viajantes natos. Foram eles que levaram as civilizações humanas para outros lugares além da Mesopotâmia. Em outra pesquisa, o jornalista David Dobbs, da revista National Geographic, investigou por que humanos viajam e as evidências apontaram novamente ao gene DRD4; há vários estudos que relacionam o gene com uma grande vontade de explorar lugares, ideias, comidas, relacionamentos, buscando sempre movimento, mudança e aventura. No entanto, o gene não é tão comum assim; ele é encontrado em apenas cerca de 20% da população. Será que esse é o seu caso? Fonte: weplann . SIGAM-ME OS BONS ➡️ @Nandinhatw (ADM) 😘❤️

@AcreditaNisso? Se você tem uma constante necessidade de buscar aventuras e não há nada que o faça desistir dos planos de conhecer os 4 cant...

Memes, Beauty and the Beast, and Washington Dc: DARK SIDE OF DIMENSION Kisah Nyata Pasangan Beauty and The Beast HUMANDoD Kisah cinta tak kenal masa, Beauty & the Beast, kembali difilmkan. Namun, tahukah Anda bahwa kisah cinta Beauty & the Beast terjadi di masa lalu? Hanya saja, berakhir tragis Ia adalah Pedro Gonzales. Lahir di Tenerife, Spanyol pada 1537. Ia tak tumbuh sebagai bocah normal. Pedro lahir dengan rambut tebal di sekujur tubuhnya termasuk wajahnya. Pedro tumbuh dengan sebutan 'manusia liar-wildman' sebuah mitologi Eropa masa Abad Pertengahan yang merupakan setengah manusia setengah hewan. Sebuah kondisi yang kita kenal sekarang sebagai Congenital Hypertrichosis. Kisah Pedro bermula di malam koronisasi Raja Henry II di Prancis di pertengahan Abad ke-16. Pedro adalah "hadiah" bagi raja. Ia memperbolehkan bocah itu sekolah & ia diberi nama Petrus Gonsalvus Saat Raja Henry meninggal, kekuasaan diambil istrinya, Catherine de Medici. Entah apa yang ada dipikiran Catherine, ia memutuskan bahwa Petrus harus menikah, untuk melihat apakah sosok 'wildman' bisa kembali diproduksi. Dia memilih wanita bernama Catherine sebagai istrinya, yang nama belakangnya tidak diketahui. Total pasangan itu memiliki 7 anak. 4 diantaranya mewarisi hipertrikosis. 4 anak mereka yang berbulu kemudian diberikan kepada keluarga bangsawan lain oleh Farnese Sungguh sedih bagi pasangan itu, terutama Petrus pria yang penuh cinta & seorang ayah harus melihat keturunan yang berbulu dijadikan hadiah. Tapi tak ada yang bisa mereka lakukan. Catherine diyakini telah meninggal pada tahun 1623, sekitar 40 tahun setelah menikah. Petrus diperkirakan telah meninggal pada 1618, meskipun kematiannya tidak disebutkan dalam catatan sipil Capodimonte. Ada beberapa spekulasi bahwa menjelang ajalnya, Petrus diperlakukan tidak layaknya manusia. Kuburan Catherine dan Petrus tidak diketahui. Tapi ingatan akan mereka hidup dalam potret. Penggambaran kisah cinta mereka terpampang lewat lukisan yang dipajang di National Gallery of Art Washington DC, yang memperlihatkan tangan Catherine di pundak Petrus dengan penuh cinta. Sumber: Liputan6
Memes, Beauty and the Beast, and Washington Dc: DARK SIDE
 OF DIMENSION
 Kisah Nyata
 Pasangan
 Beauty and The Beast
HUMANDoD Kisah cinta tak kenal masa, Beauty & the Beast, kembali difilmkan. Namun, tahukah Anda bahwa kisah cinta Beauty & the Beast terjadi di masa lalu? Hanya saja, berakhir tragis Ia adalah Pedro Gonzales. Lahir di Tenerife, Spanyol pada 1537. Ia tak tumbuh sebagai bocah normal. Pedro lahir dengan rambut tebal di sekujur tubuhnya termasuk wajahnya. Pedro tumbuh dengan sebutan 'manusia liar-wildman' sebuah mitologi Eropa masa Abad Pertengahan yang merupakan setengah manusia setengah hewan. Sebuah kondisi yang kita kenal sekarang sebagai Congenital Hypertrichosis. Kisah Pedro bermula di malam koronisasi Raja Henry II di Prancis di pertengahan Abad ke-16. Pedro adalah "hadiah" bagi raja. Ia memperbolehkan bocah itu sekolah & ia diberi nama Petrus Gonsalvus Saat Raja Henry meninggal, kekuasaan diambil istrinya, Catherine de Medici. Entah apa yang ada dipikiran Catherine, ia memutuskan bahwa Petrus harus menikah, untuk melihat apakah sosok 'wildman' bisa kembali diproduksi. Dia memilih wanita bernama Catherine sebagai istrinya, yang nama belakangnya tidak diketahui. Total pasangan itu memiliki 7 anak. 4 diantaranya mewarisi hipertrikosis. 4 anak mereka yang berbulu kemudian diberikan kepada keluarga bangsawan lain oleh Farnese Sungguh sedih bagi pasangan itu, terutama Petrus pria yang penuh cinta & seorang ayah harus melihat keturunan yang berbulu dijadikan hadiah. Tapi tak ada yang bisa mereka lakukan. Catherine diyakini telah meninggal pada tahun 1623, sekitar 40 tahun setelah menikah. Petrus diperkirakan telah meninggal pada 1618, meskipun kematiannya tidak disebutkan dalam catatan sipil Capodimonte. Ada beberapa spekulasi bahwa menjelang ajalnya, Petrus diperlakukan tidak layaknya manusia. Kuburan Catherine dan Petrus tidak diketahui. Tapi ingatan akan mereka hidup dalam potret. Penggambaran kisah cinta mereka terpampang lewat lukisan yang dipajang di National Gallery of Art Washington DC, yang memperlihatkan tangan Catherine di pundak Petrus dengan penuh cinta. Sumber: Liputan6

HUMANDoD Kisah cinta tak kenal masa, Beauty & the Beast, kembali difilmkan. Namun, tahukah Anda bahwa kisah cinta Beauty & the Beast terjadi...

Children, Memes, and Period: Because you need some joyful Somali children on your timeline right now a ohakabars ceboo Somalia: The Ancient Lost Kingdom of Punt is Finally Found? Tourists from all over the world are welcomed in Upper Egypt to admire temples and learn about the fascinating history of ancient pharaohs. However, the pharaohs’ true origins are not told and our literature is lacking adequate information. Queen Hatshepsut's temple inscriptions at Luxor reveal that her divine mother, Hathor, was from Punt - with strong indications that the pharaohs considered the origin of their culture to be Punt Land. The following is a step in the direction of exploring the pharaohs’ roots and establishing a trip along history and time. The Land of the Gods Punt Land is described in ancient Egyptian texts as the "Land of the Gods" and a region rich in resources. After Jean-Francois Champollion deciphered the pharaoh’s hieroglyphics in 1822 AD, western scholars began reading the texts. Debates started as to the origins of the pharaohs and the location of Punt Land. Egypt grew as a nation with trade that increased in the latter part of the Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BC). By the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BC) trade was firmly established with regions in Mesopotamia and Phoenicia. The Fifth Dynasty (c. 2498-2345 BC) witnessed Egypt’s flourishing through trade with Punt Land. Fourth Dynasty reliefs show a Puntite with one of Khufu’s sons, and Fifth Dynasty documents demonstrate trade between the two countries. A tomb inscription of the military commander Pepynakht Heqalb, who served under King Pepy II (2278-2184 BC) of the Sixth Dynasty, narrates how Heqalb was sent to "the land of the Aamu" to retrieve the body of the warden of Kekhen. Punt Land became a semi-mythical land for the pharaohs, but it was a real place through the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BC). During the reign of Amunhotep II (1425-1400 BC) delegations from Punt were accepted. The reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC) and of Ramesses III (1186-1155 BC) mentioned Punt as well. The pharaohs were fascinated by Punt as a "land of plenty" and it was best known as Ta Netjer – “God’s Land.” Somalia – Continuing Puntite Traditions In Hatshepsut’s temple, an expedition shows Punt more below 👇🏿 chakabars
Children, Memes, and Period: Because you need some joyful Somali
 children on your timeline right now a
 ohakabars
 ceboo
Somalia: The Ancient Lost Kingdom of Punt is Finally Found? Tourists from all over the world are welcomed in Upper Egypt to admire temples and learn about the fascinating history of ancient pharaohs. However, the pharaohs’ true origins are not told and our literature is lacking adequate information. Queen Hatshepsut's temple inscriptions at Luxor reveal that her divine mother, Hathor, was from Punt - with strong indications that the pharaohs considered the origin of their culture to be Punt Land. The following is a step in the direction of exploring the pharaohs’ roots and establishing a trip along history and time. The Land of the Gods Punt Land is described in ancient Egyptian texts as the "Land of the Gods" and a region rich in resources. After Jean-Francois Champollion deciphered the pharaoh’s hieroglyphics in 1822 AD, western scholars began reading the texts. Debates started as to the origins of the pharaohs and the location of Punt Land. Egypt grew as a nation with trade that increased in the latter part of the Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BC). By the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BC) trade was firmly established with regions in Mesopotamia and Phoenicia. The Fifth Dynasty (c. 2498-2345 BC) witnessed Egypt’s flourishing through trade with Punt Land. Fourth Dynasty reliefs show a Puntite with one of Khufu’s sons, and Fifth Dynasty documents demonstrate trade between the two countries. A tomb inscription of the military commander Pepynakht Heqalb, who served under King Pepy II (2278-2184 BC) of the Sixth Dynasty, narrates how Heqalb was sent to "the land of the Aamu" to retrieve the body of the warden of Kekhen. Punt Land became a semi-mythical land for the pharaohs, but it was a real place through the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BC). During the reign of Amunhotep II (1425-1400 BC) delegations from Punt were accepted. The reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC) and of Ramesses III (1186-1155 BC) mentioned Punt as well. The pharaohs were fascinated by Punt as a "land of plenty" and it was best known as Ta Netjer – “God’s Land.” Somalia – Continuing Puntite Traditions In Hatshepsut’s temple, an expedition shows Punt more below 👇🏿 chakabars

Somalia: The Ancient Lost Kingdom of Punt is Finally Found? Tourists from all over the world are welcomed in Upper Egypt to admire temples a...

Memes, Muslim, and Petty: This photo is of a Somali woman in 19IO @chakabars She is fine! In 1899, Sheikh Maxamed came into conflict with the recently established Christian mission and also was involved in a petty dispute with the administration. With the current European and Ethiopian encroachment and with the example of the Sudanese mahdi (in Islamic eschatology, a messianic deliverer), these two incidents provided the seeds that rapidly developed into a major Somali insurrection. Maxamed did not appropriate the title of mahdi but assumed the title of sayyid (a descendant of the Prophet), and his followers were known as the dervishes. He displayed great skill in employing all the traditional tactics of Somali clan politics in building up his following, strengthening these with the call to national Muslim solidarity against the infidel colonizers. Arms and ammunition, denied to Somali in the past, became easily available through the ports of Djibouti and the northeastern coast, and the dervishes, although opposed by many Somali, who were branded as traitors to Islam, successfully weathered four major British, Italian, and Ethiopian campaigns between 1900 and 1904. The cumbersome British armies, hampered by their supply and water requirements, found the dervish guerrilla tactics hard to combat effectively, and, when in 1910 the British government decided to abandon its inconclusive, extremely expensive operations and withdrew to the coast, leaving chaos in the interior, Sayyid Maxamed seemed to have emerged victorious. A new policy was subsequently adopted, however, and, with the aid of an increasingly effective camel constabulary (whose founder, Richard Corfield, was killed at the Battle of Dulmadoobe in 1913), the dervishes were kept at bay until 1920, when a combined air, sea, and land operation finally routed them. The formidable dervish stronghold at Taleex, or Taleh, was bombed, but the sayyid escaped, as so often before, only to die of influenza a few months later while desperately seeking to rally his scattered followers. chakabars ❤🇸🇴 pic by @vintage_somalia
Memes, Muslim, and Petty: This photo is of a Somali woman in 19IO
 @chakabars
She is fine! In 1899, Sheikh Maxamed came into conflict with the recently established Christian mission and also was involved in a petty dispute with the administration. With the current European and Ethiopian encroachment and with the example of the Sudanese mahdi (in Islamic eschatology, a messianic deliverer), these two incidents provided the seeds that rapidly developed into a major Somali insurrection. Maxamed did not appropriate the title of mahdi but assumed the title of sayyid (a descendant of the Prophet), and his followers were known as the dervishes. He displayed great skill in employing all the traditional tactics of Somali clan politics in building up his following, strengthening these with the call to national Muslim solidarity against the infidel colonizers. Arms and ammunition, denied to Somali in the past, became easily available through the ports of Djibouti and the northeastern coast, and the dervishes, although opposed by many Somali, who were branded as traitors to Islam, successfully weathered four major British, Italian, and Ethiopian campaigns between 1900 and 1904. The cumbersome British armies, hampered by their supply and water requirements, found the dervish guerrilla tactics hard to combat effectively, and, when in 1910 the British government decided to abandon its inconclusive, extremely expensive operations and withdrew to the coast, leaving chaos in the interior, Sayyid Maxamed seemed to have emerged victorious. A new policy was subsequently adopted, however, and, with the aid of an increasingly effective camel constabulary (whose founder, Richard Corfield, was killed at the Battle of Dulmadoobe in 1913), the dervishes were kept at bay until 1920, when a combined air, sea, and land operation finally routed them. The formidable dervish stronghold at Taleex, or Taleh, was bombed, but the sayyid escaped, as so often before, only to die of influenza a few months later while desperately seeking to rally his scattered followers. chakabars ❤🇸🇴 pic by @vintage_somalia

She is fine! In 1899, Sheikh Maxamed came into conflict with the recently established Christian mission and also was involved in a petty dis...

Ali, Assassination, and Bodies : @ch akabars If only our eyes saw souls instead of bodies how very different our ideals of beauty would be 🇸🇴Independence and Early Years, 1960 After the 10-year interim period, on June 26, 1960, the northern protectorate of Somaliland gained independence from Britain. Five days later on July 1, 1960, the two former colonies united to form the United Republic of Somalia under President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, Prime Minister Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, and a 123-member National Assembly representing both territories. Daar ruled Somalia from 1960 until 1967. Shermarke succeeded him and led the country for two years until his assassination in 1969. Though northern and southern Somalia were united under one government, they operated as two separate countries, with different legal, administrative, and educational systems. Beginnings of Dictatorship, 1969-1976 On the day of Shermarke’s funeral, the Somali army, led by Mohamed Siad Barre, staged a bloodless coup. Barre, a charismatic dictator who fostered a cult of personality and called himself “Victorious Leader,” served as president and military ruler of Somalia from 1969-1991 and renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic. Under Barre’s leadership Somalia sided with the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Though Barre outlawed clan loyalties and promoted his own scientific socialism, he supported clan elders to maintain control of rural areas. The new government, dominated by the only legal political party, the Supreme Revolutionary Council, or SRC, formed a guiding ideology based on a combination of Marxism and the Quran and led a “reeducation” campaign to eliminate opposition. In 1976, the SRC officially marked the end of military rule by dissolving itself and ceded power to its own creation, the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, or SRSP. Next week’s Enough 101 will focus on Somalia’s more recent history. chakabars @yescene on the picture ❤
Ali, Assassination, and Bodies : @ch akabars
 If only our eyes saw souls
 instead of bodies
 how very different our ideals
 of beauty would be
🇸🇴Independence and Early Years, 1960 After the 10-year interim period, on June 26, 1960, the northern protectorate of Somaliland gained independence from Britain. Five days later on July 1, 1960, the two former colonies united to form the United Republic of Somalia under President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, Prime Minister Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, and a 123-member National Assembly representing both territories. Daar ruled Somalia from 1960 until 1967. Shermarke succeeded him and led the country for two years until his assassination in 1969. Though northern and southern Somalia were united under one government, they operated as two separate countries, with different legal, administrative, and educational systems. Beginnings of Dictatorship, 1969-1976 On the day of Shermarke’s funeral, the Somali army, led by Mohamed Siad Barre, staged a bloodless coup. Barre, a charismatic dictator who fostered a cult of personality and called himself “Victorious Leader,” served as president and military ruler of Somalia from 1969-1991 and renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic. Under Barre’s leadership Somalia sided with the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Though Barre outlawed clan loyalties and promoted his own scientific socialism, he supported clan elders to maintain control of rural areas. The new government, dominated by the only legal political party, the Supreme Revolutionary Council, or SRC, formed a guiding ideology based on a combination of Marxism and the Quran and led a “reeducation” campaign to eliminate opposition. In 1976, the SRC officially marked the end of military rule by dissolving itself and ceded power to its own creation, the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, or SRSP. Next week’s Enough 101 will focus on Somalia’s more recent history. chakabars @yescene on the picture ❤

🇸🇴Independence and Early Years, 1960 After the 10-year interim period, on June 26, 1960, the northern protectorate of Somaliland gained inde...